One Stop Doc Statistics and Epidemiology by Emily Ferenczi, Nina Muirhead

By Emily Ferenczi, Nina Muirhead

Pt. 1. Epidemiology -- pt. 2. Statistical toolkit

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Other appropriate methods include log rank and the Wilcoxon two-sample tests (7). Answers 5. 6. 7. 8. 1 per cent Over the possible 280 days of skiing (20 × 14) only 225 were spent skiing. 25 days each T T F T F F F T ONE STOP DOC 40 9. What are the advantages of a prospective cohort study? a. b. c. d. e. f. It is quick and inexpensive It can be used to determine the temporal relationship between risk factor and disease It is good for looking at rare diseases The outcome following rare exposures can be measured Information can be collected during the study and will not be biased by the outcome It can be used to calculate incidence 10.

Cross-sectional study C. Case–control study D. Cohort study E. Randomized controlled trial F. Meta-analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. Can compare widely differing populations Can provide an estimate of relative risk Can summarize results of all the studies asking a similar question Can demonstrate a temporal relationship between exposure to a risk factor and development of disease 5. Can directly measure the effects of an intervention 6. Can estimate prevalence 11. Match up the following diasdvantages to the study designs from the options given Options A.

It cannot be used to estimate incidence There is a potential for recall bias Definitions of disease may influence prevalence estimates It can always demonstrate true trends in disease 11. In which of the following situations would a cross-sectional study be inappropriate? a. b. c. d. e. To test the hypothesis that obesity leads to an increased risk of asthma To calculate the number of new cases of obesity per year in the UK To study the prevalence of obesity in different countries of Europe To study whether the incidence of allergies changes with season To study whether exposure to mobile phone signals precedes development of brain tumours BMI, body mass index Observational studies: cross-sectional studies 23 EXPLANATION: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES Advantages of cross-sectional studies are: • They are relatively quick: they are only conducted at a single point in time (unless a series of repeated studies is done) and therefore can be relatively inexpensive • They can give estimates of prevalence • They are flexible: they can be used for studying both rare and common conditions or diseases, depending on the sample size recruited • They can be used to compare prevalence in different populations and thus used to formulate hypotheses about disease, based on characteristics such as sex, age or geographical location of a population • Sequentially repeated cross-sectional studies can be used to estimate changes in prevalence over time and thus are used to demonstrate trends in health and disease.

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