By Mohammad Raq Siddiqi
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Additional resources for Tylenchida. Parasites of Plants and Insects
Cotype = a paratype or syntype, not in usage now as it is not recognized by the ICZN. Dichotomy = in a differential key where two new branches arise from one stem. Diploid, haploid = during meiosis, the chromosome number of a diploid cell is halved, 2n becomes n. Distance matrix = a taxon-by-taxon matrix in which distance or dissimilarities are measured. DNA ﬁngerprinting = technique based on restriction fragment analysis of DNA that reveals polymorphisms at dispersed loci of tandemly repeated DNA, used for evaluating relatedness between closely related individuals.
The most parsimonious explanation). Patronym = a scientiﬁc name based on a person, in his honour or in recognition of his work. Phenetics, phenon = now used mainly to describe numerical taxonomy using clustering of taxa (phenons) based on similarity. Phylogeny = the evolutionary history of a group of taxa. Polarity = evolutionary direction of a character state transition, determining a plesiomorphic (primitive) or apomorphic (advanced, derived) state. Polymorphism = occurrence of two or more phenotypic states of a character among the members of a taxon.
Diagnoses and differential keys are provided for all valid genera. In most cases diagnoses have been enlarged. To avoid confusion with related genera in other subfamilies, some familial characters are repeated in generic diagnoses. Data for the type species, especially the type host, habitat and locality, are frequently mentioned 16 INTRODUCTION, HISTORICAL REVIEW AND TECHNIQUES and etymologies of the generic names provided. In the diagnoses of taxa, if the sex or developmental stage is not mentioned, the morphological or ecological characters refer to the female since the female is the parasitic stage both as plant and insect parasite; males and juveniles of some groups have a degenerated oesophagus and cannot feed.