By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
Heating, air flow and Air-Conditioning (HVAC)control structures are omnipresent in sleek constructions. This booklet is an creation to all these eager about the specification, layout, manufacture, install, operation or maintainance of those structures. The ebook explains: *Control thought and the way to guage, choose, place and series the ideal form of keep an eye on *The electric wisdom had to comprehend controls and using electric circuit drawings *The a variety of different types of valves and dampers, and their choice, install and operation *Terminology and attributes of sensors, the choice of moisture sensors, strain, stream, and auxiliary units *Self-powered and system-powered controls *Electric controls, keep watch over diagrams and keep an eye on common sense *The elements of pneumatic structures and keep watch over functions diagrams *Wiring conventions, application-specific digital controllers and the way to take advantage of them in HVAC purposes *The use of written necessities, schedules, and drawings to obviously establish what's to be put in, the way it is to be put in, and the way it really is anticipated to function *Direct electronic Controls (DDC) parts, their inputs and outputs, and the programming of DDC workouts *DDC Networks and Protocols *DDC Specification, set up and Commissioning After finishing this path, you'll comprehend: *Control concept and the way to judge, decide on, place and series the proper kind of keep watch over *The electric wisdom had to comprehend controls and using electric circuit drawings *The quite a few forms of valves and dampers, and their choice, set up and operation *Terminology and attributes of sensors, the choice of moisture sensors, strain, movement, and auxiliary units *Self-powered and system-powered controls electrical controls, regulate diagrams and regulate common sense *The parts of pneumatic platforms and regulate functions diagrams *Wiring conventions, application-specific digital controllers and the way to take advantage of them in HVAC functions *The use of written requirements, schedules, and drawings to obviously determine what's to be put in, the way it is to be put in, and the way it's anticipated to function *Direct electronic Controls (DDC) elements, their inputs and outputs, and the programming of DDC exercises *DDC Networks and Protocols *DDC Specification, install and Commissioning
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Extra info for Fundamentals of HVAC Control Systems: SI Edition Hardbound Book
Control Point Offset Controlled Variable Setpoint T1 T2 T3 T4 Time T5 T6 Figure 1-12 Proportional Plus Integral Control 20 Fundamentals of HVAC Control Systems The sensitivity of the control logic is now a function of both the proportional gain Kp and the integral gain Ki. Just as with proportional control, it is possible to have unstable control if the gains are too high; they must be tuned for the application. One disadvantage of including the integral term is an effect called windup. This is caused when the control loop is operating but the controlled device is disconnected or otherwise not able to control the controlled variable, such as when a system is turned off at night.
If we were at a steady load that was higher, for example, we would need to open the valve more, requiring a larger signal V. To increase the value of V, the second term of Equation 1-2 would have to be non-zero, meaning our error would have to be non-zero. This error is the offset or droop. The amount of the offset is a function of the constant Kp (the controller proportional gain). The larger the gain is, the smaller the offset. However, increasing the gain to minimize offset must be done with care because too high a gain may result in instability and a rapid oscillation around the setpoint (called hunting).
Starters may be manual (basically a large switch) or they may be automatic. The automatic type typically uses a magnetic contactor, using a concept similar to the electromagnetic relay described above. More recently, solid-state (electronic) starters have begun to be used, particularly on large motors such as those used on chillers. Overload protection. Electric motors are not inherently self-limiting devices. The device they are driving may operate in a fashion that causes the motor to draw more current than it was designed to handle.