Fundamentals in Oncologic Ultrasound: Sonographic Imaging by Orlando Catalano, Antonio Nunziata, Alfredo Siani, David O.

By Orlando Catalano, Antonio Nunziata, Alfredo Siani, David O. Cosgrove

This ebook goals at offering a powerful beginning on tumors and melanoma imaging for the resident and the professional acting ultrasound reports. while, additionally referring oncologists and surgical oncologists that desire to turn into extra professional in tumor imaging with ultrasound will advance a greater knowing of the correct use of ultrasound investigations, i.e., while this diagnostic strategy is a legitimate substitute to different (more pricey) imaging modalities.

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Occasionally variations in compression make identification of isoechoic superficial lesions possible, which are identifiable due to the different compression characteristics with respect to the surrounding tissue (Fig. 49). The same result can be achieved by using elastography to test an area with a focal lesion of suspicious nature. Compression with the transducer can help to define the generally hard consistency and tenderness, at least in surface lesions, which are useful elements for differential diagnosis.

Compression with the transducer can help to define the generally hard consistency and tenderness, at least in surface lesions, which are useful elements for differential diagnosis. In the case of neoplastic lesions, the tenderness may be due to rapid growth, infiltration of anatomic structures sensitive to pain and/or compression of adjacent structures. Running the transducer over the skin may also reveal an increased consistency or even a “bump”, which may be useful for identifying masses that are not immediately recognizable.

The ultimate goal of cancer treatment is to increase patient survival. In the evaluation of treatment response, however, it is not always possible to wait for an increase in survival, thus creating the need for surrogates [87,88]. The traditional surrogate is given by the progressive reduction in size and subsequent disappearance of the tumor. Despite their differences, the different evaluation systems – WHO and RECIST – are based on the objective demonstration of a measurable reduction in tumor mass.

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