By K. Lejda, P. Wos
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Extra resources for Fuel Injection in Automotive Engineering
Comparison of Maximum Cylinder Pressure 23 24 Fuel Injection in Automotive Engineering Comparison of heat release for the different oxygen enriched additives, with selected emulsified fuel ratio of 50D: 50E is shown in figure. 15. This is due to the higher and lower values of latent heat of evaporation of ethanol and diesel fuel respectively (Latent heat of evaporation: Ethanol–840 kJ/kg; Diesel–300 kJ/kg). At the rated output, heat release rate is the highest with ethanol-diesel operation due to enhancement of the premixed combustion phase, (Ajav.
The least value obtained by DME is 46 HSU at maximum load condition. Role of Emulsified Fuel in the Present IC Engines – Need of Alodine EC Ethanol Corrosion Resistant Coating for Fuel Injection System Fig. 10. Comparison of Brake Thermal Efficiency Fig. 11. Comparison of Specific Fuel Consumption 21 22 Fuel Injection in Automotive Engineering Figure 13 shows the comparison of the NOx emission, for various oxygen enriched additives added emulsified fuels, with the selected ratio of 50D: 50E. All the emulsified fuels emit higher range of NOx than diesel fuel.
First principal component in 3D The PC2 must be orthogonal to PC1 and is positioned to capture the maximum residual variance. When all the data variability can not be explained by only one major component (red and green samples), a second PC is needed and so on. The score for the PC2 is obtained by projection, in a manner analogous to the previous situation (Fig. 10). Fig. 10 . Second principal component in 3D Multivariate Modeling in Quality Control of Viscosity in Fuel: An Application in Oil Industry 41 To obtain the remaining principal components, the procedure is the same.