Flow of Real Fluids by Gerd E.A. Meier, Frank Obermeier

By Gerd E.A. Meier, Frank Obermeier

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The two opposite trends of rsi and rGe are those expected according to the above-mentioned model, coming Si from halogenated (SiF4) and Ge from hydrogenated (GeH 4) compounds. Once again, there is clear evidence that hydrogenated species (GeH 4, like Sill 4) preferentially chemisorb on p-type materials, whereas halogenated species (SiF 4, SIC14) on n-type materials. Perrin et al. [48] explain the positive effect of B2H 6 addition on the deposition rate of a-Si :H from Sill 4 as due to its strong catalytic effect on the growth kinetics.

D. EFFECTOF PLASMA MODULATION During the last few years, plasma modulation of the PECVD technique systems has been investigated in an attempt to improve the material properties [ 130] and the deposition process [ 128, 130]. In most cases, the discharge is 100% modulated by a square-wave audiofrequency variable in the range from 10-1 to 104 Hz. This, in practice, results in a periodical switching on and off of the plasma at the mentioned frequency, as shown in Fig. 32, in which a schematic diagram of the time sequence of applied modulated RF field is represented together with the behavior of the time resolved optical emission for an Ar plasma.

1. N o b l e - G a s Dilution Helium dilution has been proved to be useful to increase the deposition rate (> 10 ,~/s) of a-Si" H films, while maintaining a low defect density in the material [ 142]. A more thorough study has been carried out by Roca i Cabarrocas et al. [143] on a-Si" H films obtained from pure Sill 4 and Sill 4 40% diluted in He, under various 42 Giovanni Bruno, Pio Capezzuto, and Grazia Cicala experimental conditions and the obtained results allowed the authors to define the causes of material metastability.

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