Essentials of electromyography by Gary Kamen

By Gary Kamen

The curiosity in and use of electromyography (EMG) have grown considerably lately. Researchers have chanced on a variety of scientific and study makes use of for EMG, together with biofeedback, gait research, and scientific prognosis for neuromuscular problems. but, previously, few resources were on hand to aid newbies comprehend the features of the instrumentation, sign research suggestions, and applicable EMG Read more...

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Consequently, for the most part, cold temperatures tend to result in lower EMG spectral frequencies (Petrofsky and Lind 1980; Winkel and Jørgensen 1991) and produce effects that are similar to those observed with muscle fatigue. ––The amplitude of the EMG signal increases as muscle temperature is reduced (Winkel and Jørgensen 1991), although some studies have shown that rootmean-square (RMS) amplitude does not seem to be affected by changes in muscle temperature (Holewijn and Heus 1992; Krause et al.

A shorter wire with thicker cross-sectional area can conduct a larger current (a), whereas a longer and narrower wire with greater resistance conducts a smaller current (b). Fig. 2, p. 446 from PHYSICS, 4th ed. by Arthur Beiser. Copyright © 1986 by The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. Adapted by permission of Pearson Education. 36 ◾ Essentials of Electromyography Key Points ◾◾ The amount of charge flowing (i) per unit area (S) is referred to as current density (J). If current is divided by cross-sectional area of the conductor, then the current density is J = i / A, where the units are amperes (A) per meter squared (m2).

If force is not acting in the same direction as displacement, then trigonometry must be used to find the vector component of force that is in the same direction as displacement: W = Fd cos (θ) . This is critical to understanding the sign convention in relation to electric potential. 3, illustrates how work and energy can be defined in terms of either gravitational or electrical fields. 3a). If a force is applied beneath the object that is infinitesimally greater than the weight, the object will move very slowly toward position B.

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