By Peter Harrington
The strategies of ecu war have been reworked through the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries by way of gunpowder and via mammoth development within the effectiveness and harmful energy of artillery. The sequence of conflicts within the 1640s, identified jointly because the English Civil conflict, used to be the 1st within the British Isles that mirrored this new truth. Sieges that aimed toward keeping apart and lowering fortified areas grew to become the dominant software for prosecuting the warfare and protecting fortifications have been important, for either the besieged in addition to the besieger. This identify describes how either the Parliamentarians and the Royalists made use of latest fortification options through the process this clash.
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Additional resources for English Civil War Fortifications 1642-1651 (Fortress, Volume 9)
Swyne and cattle not to spoyle the works. Whereas there hath beene greate spoyle and decaye of our Fortificationns [at Stafford] by the Inhabitants swine and cattle rooting and trampling downe the same It is therefore ordered that whatsoever swine or cattle shall be found about the said works of Fortifications that the owners of the same shall pay for every beast twelvepence, and for every swyne sixpence to be paid to the Souldiers that shall take or find the same. And it is likewise ordered that no person or persons whatsoever after the workes are made shall go upon the same upon peanie [penalty] of twelvepence for every one so offending to be payed to the Souldiers of this Garrison.
This scene shows the work in progress at Fort No 22, which was described as ‘a large fort, with four bulwarks near the end of Blackman Street’. ’ Pennington’s efforts were attributed to his zeal in trying to preserve the ‘Protestant religion’ against those ‘malignants’ who supported the King. ’ One interesting observation made by the Venetian ambassador in March 1643 concerned the form of the fortifications at London. He stated that ‘the shape betrays that they are not only for defence against the royal armies, but also against tumults of the citizens, and to ensure a prompt obedience on all occasions’.
On the bastions, often covered with turf, would be cannon-baskets known as gabions and occasionally woolpacks to protect cannon. In front of the rampart would be a ditch or graffe created by the quarrying of the earth. Protruding from the bank might be horizontal sharpened stakes called storm poles. In most cases the ditch would have been dry although some engineers did occasionally direct water into these. A steep glacis would be seen on the landward side of the ditch affording no protection to the attackers; and sometimes masses of interwoven wood called an abbatis would cover this area to hinder movement.