By Gunther Martin
Gunther Martin examines the references to faith within the speeches of Demosthenes and different Athenian orators within the 4th century BC. partially I he demonstrates the function faith performs within the rhetorical technique of speeches in political trials: his major argument is that audio system needed to be constant of their method of faith all through their occupation. It was once impossible to alter from being a practical to a `religious' speaker and again, however it used to be attainable, while writing for others, to exploit faith in a fashion one do not have used it while offering a speech oneself. partly II Martin bargains with meeting speeches and speeches in deepest trials, within which non secular references are a long way scarcer. within the meeting, until really non secular concerns are mentioned, faith turns out to were virtually inadmissible, whereas in deepest trials it really is procedural parts that provide nearly all of non secular references.
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36 That people wearing a crown enjoyed protection is demonstrated in Aristophanes’ Ploutos. There a slave can complain about his master’s blows by a reference to his crown. The master’s answer is that in this case the slave will suVer when he has taken oV the crown (vv. 18–23). This shows that the master at Wrst does not care about the crown. When his attention is called to its meaning he respects it. The situation is that both come from the Delphic oracle and are trying to fulWl the order given by Apollo.
Choregiae can be presented, together with paying the åNóçïæÜ, as indication of great wealth (Lys. 27. 10, Dem. 8. 70, Xen. Ath. Pol. 1. 13). A successful choregia was characterized by the attributes ŒÆºüò, ìåªÆºïðæåðÞò, çØºüôØìïò, çØºüíØŒïò, and similar words expressing splendour and expenditure, cf. IG ii2. 1138, 1198, Isoc. 19. 36, Isae. 7. 40, Dem. 18. 257; the same point is made by Antiphanes PCG 202. 5. Accordingly, if one lost the competition (presumably because of meanness in the choregia), one ŒÆŒHò KåïæÞªÅóåí (Isae.
13, Dem. 59. 109; punishment that falls upon the environment as a consequence: Aeschin. 2. 158 (¼ Hes. Op. 240–1), Antiph. 5. 82. The idea is directly expressed in Antiph. 2. 1. 3 and 3. 3. 11, but these were not real forensic speeches. In those the motif was not exploited (Carawan (1993), 250–1). ’ Against Midias (Or. 21) 29 ôeí ïsí åYò ôØíÆ ôïýôøí ôHí åïæåıôHí j ôHí åïæÅªHí âæßÇïíôÆ Kð åŁæﬁ Æ, ŒÆd ôÆFôÆ Kí ÆPôﬁH ôﬁH IªHíØ ŒÆd Kí ôﬁH ôïF ŁåïF ƒåæﬁH, ôïFôïí ¼ººï ôØ ðºcí IóåâåEí çÞóïìåí; So when a man treats any of these choristers or choregoi with insolence, out of enmity, and that while the contest is actually in progress and in the precinct of the god, can we deny that he is guilty of impiety?