By Dipl.?Ing. (TU) Hansjorg Lipowsky, Dr. Emin Arpaci(auth.)
A complete and enormous resource of knowledge at the homes, construction, processing and functions of copper and copper alloys, of curiosity to metallurgical, improvement, layout and trying out engineers within the car and different industries utilizing copper.
The authority in the back of this publication - the German Copper Institute - was once based in 1927 and is the technical-scientific advisory heart for all questions relating purposes and the processing of copper and copper alloys in Germany. For greater than seventy five years, the technical clinical advisory and data carrier of the institute has been supplying professional support for free. it's supported via the copper undefined, the eu Copper Institute (ECI) and The overseas Copper organization. it really is useful and energetic in concerns in regards to the use of copper not just in automobile but additionally in all type of business functions, in construction development, in electric engineering and in questions referring to copper's value for health.
Chapter 1 uncooked fabric assets (pages 1–2):
Chapter 2 construction (pages 3–9):
Chapter three category of Copper fabrics (pages 11–28):
Chapter four Wrought Copper fabrics (pages 29–43):
Chapter five Copper Casting fabrics (pages 45–53):
Chapter 6 houses of the Copper fabrics (pages 55–77):
Chapter 7 operating with Copper fabrics (pages 79–116):
Chapter eight layout Notes (pages 117–121):
Chapter nine program (pages 123–125):
Chapter 10 utilization homes (pages 127–143):
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Extra resources for Copper in the Automotive Industry
Furthermore, resistance to deformation of the metal is generally reduced with increasing temperature. The various copper materials have different hot forming properties. With the homogeneous single-phase (a-phase) copper alloys, resistance to deformation increases, starting from pure copper, with increasing content of alloying elements. The heterogeneous alloys of the Cu–Zn or Cu–Al system, however, have a lower resistance to hot forming; the newly appearing b-mixed crystal is more easily hot formable than the a-mixed crystal.
3 Classification and Designation EN specifications are binding within the European Union. The following general definitions apply in the application of European specifications for copper materials: · Copper material Generic term for copper and copper alloys · Standardized copper material Copper material standardized in a European specification · Non-standardized copper material Copper material not standardized in a European specification but produced and/or used in Europe. 1 Designation by Material Number The material numbering system described in EN 1412 is based on the appendix to ISO/TR 7003, in which a copper material is allocated a certain number for classification into categories.
This material numbering system is an alternative to the material designation system with codes as laid down in ISO 1190-1. According to this system, all copper material numbers must consist of six characters. According to ISO/TR 7003, the code in the first position must be the letter “C” in order to describe the copper material. The character in the second position must be a letter identifying the material group. Table 15 lists the respective letters and their meaning. The characters for the third, fourth and fifth positions must form numbers between 000 and 999 with these characters being used for numbering individual materials within a certain material group.