By David A. Patterson, John L. Hennessy
Torrent doesn't include the better half CD
The best-selling desktop association booklet is punctiliously up to date to supply a brand new specialize in the innovative swap happening in at the present time: the swap from uniprocessor to multicore microprocessors. This new emphasis on parallelism is supported through updates reflecting the most recent applied sciences, with examples highlighting the newest processor designs and benchmarking criteria. As with earlier variations, a MIPS processor is the center used to offer the basics of applied sciences, meeting language, desktop mathematics, pipelining, reminiscence hierarchies and I/O. Sections at the ARM and x86 architectures also are included.
A significant other CD offers a toolkit of simulators and compilers in addition to tutorials for utilizing them, in addition to complicated content material for extra learn and a seek software for locating content material at the CD and within the revealed text.
* Covers the innovative swap from sequential to parallel computing, with a brand new bankruptcy on parallelism and sections in each bankruptcy highlighting parallel and software program topics.
* contains a new appendix by way of the executive Scientist and the Director of structure of NVIDIA overlaying the emergence and value of the fashionable GPU, describing intimately for the 1st time the hugely parallel, hugely multithreaded multiprocessor optimized for visible computing.
* Describes a singular method of measuring multicore performance--the "Roofline model"--with benchmarks and research for the AMD Opteron X4, Intel Xeon 5000, solar UltraSPARC T2, and IBM Cell.
* comprises new content material on Flash reminiscence and digital Machines.
* presents a wide, stimulating set of recent routines, protecting virtually two hundred pages.
* positive factors the AMD Opteron X4 and Intel Nehalem as real-world examples through the book.
* Updates all processor functionality examples utilizing the SPEC CPU2006 suite.
Read or Download Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface (4th Edition) (The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Architecture and Design) PDF
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Additional resources for Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface (4th Edition) (The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Architecture and Design)
The use of mechanical components means that access times for magnetic disks are much slower than for DRAMs: disks typically take 5–20 milliseconds, while DRAMs take 50–70 nanoseconds—making DRAMs about 100,000 times faster. Yet disks have much lower costs than DRAM for the same storage capacity, because the production costs for a given amount of disk storage are lower than for the same amount of integrated circuit. In 2008, the cost per gigabyte of disk is 30 to 100 times less expensive than DRAM.
The main memory is contained on one or more small boards shown on the left. The hole for the battery is to the right. The DRAM chips are mounted on these boards (called DIMMs, for dual inline memory modules) and then plugged into the connectors. com. The processor is the active part of the board, following the instructions of a program to the letter. It adds numbers, tests numbers, signals I/O devices to activate, and so on. 7. Occasionally, people call the processor the CPU, for the more bureaucratic-sounding central processor unit.
13 shows some typical passenger airplanes, together with their cruising speed, range, and capacity. If we wanted to know which of the planes in this table had the best performance, we would first need to define performance. For example, considering different measures of performance, we see that the plane with the highest cruising speed is the Concorde, the plane with the longest range is the DC-8, and the plane with the largest capacity is the 747. Let’s suppose we define performance in terms of speed.