Brain Tumors - An Encyclopedic Appr. by A. Kaye, E. Laws

By A. Kaye, E. Laws

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Multipotential stem cells have a long life span and extensive proliferative capacity, which makes them likely targets Stem cells and progenitor cell lineages as targets for neoplastic transformation in the central nervous system 2 Stem and progenitor cells in the adult murine subventricular zone Neurons Corpus callosum Multi-potent stem cell Neuroblast ? Transitamplifying cell Subventricular zone A ? Astrocyte progenitor? Astrocyte Oligodendrocyte progenitor Oligodendrocyte Glial progenitor B Murine models of anaplastic astrocytoma/glioblastoma EGFR/p53 CD133?

Since gliomas are initiated by various mutations and carry multiple genetic defects, we anticipate that marker signatures for brain tumor stem cells will vary among glioma patients and will reflect the heterogeneous nature of the tumor-initiating mutation and the cellular evolution of individual tumors. Definitions of specific signatures of brain tumor stem cells for individual brain cancer patients will be the challenge of personalized medicine. We envision that positive and negative selection for a variety of cell surface markers but also specific signaling pathways and metabolic states will be used in the future to regularly isolate brain tumor stem cells from patient tissue.

A small-scale study correlates growth frequency of tumorspheres and a distinct CD133-positive population in high-grade oligodendroglial tumors with poor prognosis (Beier et al 2008). In combination, the presence of CD133-positive stem cells or cell populations with other stem cell biomarkers, and frequency of tumorsphere formation might become useful criteria in predicting the therapeutic response and in establishing novel prognostic sub-classes of glioma. Comprehensive, large-scale studies are necessary to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of CD133positive stem cells or cell populations with other stem cell biomarkers, which may vary according to the glioma subtype.

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