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Also have an environmental impact. One of the questions for OEMs is, if the hydrocarbon technologies ͑base oil+ additive packages͒ as well established products are still robust enough to fulfill all of these requirements or do they need to look towards nonconventional base stocks, like ester or polyglycol base oils? -EPA ͓5͔ policies. Also fuel economy targets will increase the demand for low viscosity grades, especially at low temperatures, with high viscosity indices ͑VI͒. Direct injecting engines favor formulations without polymeric VI-improvers.
5 1741 1737 HENDERSON AND MAGGI ON VISCOMETRIC TEMPERATURE SENSITIVITY 33 Appendix C-Viscosity Data Power Ratio Sample LTEP2 LTEP2 LTEP2 CLNNR CLNNR CLNNR CLNNR CLNNR BO0406 BO0406 BO0406 BO0406 LU0401 LU0401 LU0401 LU0401 LU0405 LU0405 LU0405 LU0405 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 E1 E1 E1 E1 E1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 CLNNR CLNNR CLNNR CLNNR CLNNR Nominal Temp. 5 Note: Some figures used the individual measurement data rather than the averages shown in the table. References ͓1͔ ͓2͔ ͓3͔ ͓4͔ Cox, D. , Manning, R. , and Kim, D.
And the NOACK volatility ͑Ͻ10 % or Ͻ13 %͒, or a combination thereof, as general criteria. S. persists, and the diversification in original equipment manufacturer ͑OEM͒ specifications is spreading more and more since engine designs requiring specific oil formulations or using specific combustion processes have been released. In general, all specifications are being and will be replaced by new ones on shorter notice, thus spiraling the development costs. In consequence, the engine oil concepts need to be more robust in order to buffer future developments well and meaningful test procedures outside of engines in order to cut engine bench test costs are needed.