Audio Bandwidth Extension: Application of Psychoacoustics, by Erik Larsen, Ronald M. Aarts

By Erik Larsen, Ronald M. Aarts

Larsen (speech and listening to bioscience and know-how, Massachusetts Institute of expertise) and Aarts, a researcher within the deepest region within the Netherlands, research functions of bandwidth extension (BWE) to track and speech, putting specific emphasis on sign processing thoughts. overlaying idea, functions, and algorithms, they assessment vital ideas in psychoacoustics, sign processing, and loudspeaker conception, and increase the idea and implementation of BWE utilized to low-frequency sound replica, perceptually coded audio, speech, and noise abatement. an outline of a BWE patent is integrated. The booklet could be of curiosity to engineers, researchers, and postgraduate scholars in audio, sign processing, and speech.

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The sone scale The loudness level is expressed in phon. However, loudness values expressed on this scale do not immediately suggest the actual magnitude of the sensation. 22 Levels of tones of 200 Hz (a), 2000 Hz (b), and the two tones simultaneously (c). The phon value is computed with a loudness model; dB(A) and dB(B) represent Aand B-weighted levels respectively. The lowest value in each part gives the acoustic SPL. From Aarts [4] Therefore the sone scale, which is the numerical assignment of the strength of a sound, has been established.

Powell and Chau [213]). 2 STATISTICS OF AUDIO SIGNALS For BWE methods, it is important to know the spectrum of the audio signal. Because these signals are generally not stationary, the spectrum varies from moment to moment, and the spectrogram is useful to visualize this spectro-temporal behaviour of speech and music. First we will consider speech, and then music. For both cases, we will make it plausible that certain bandwidth limitations can be overcome by suitable processing. Some of the material in this chapter is taken from Aarts et al.

The sone scale The loudness level is expressed in phon. However, loudness values expressed on this scale do not immediately suggest the actual magnitude of the sensation. 22 Levels of tones of 200 Hz (a), 2000 Hz (b), and the two tones simultaneously (c). The phon value is computed with a loudness model; dB(A) and dB(B) represent Aand B-weighted levels respectively. The lowest value in each part gives the acoustic SPL. From Aarts [4] Therefore the sone scale, which is the numerical assignment of the strength of a sound, has been established.

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