By W. T. Elwell, J. A. F. Gidley, R. Belcher and L. Gordon (Auth.)
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Extra info for Atomic-Absorption Spectrophotometry
In this way the most sensitive absorption line in a complex spectrum is readily identified. When a continuous source of radiation is used for absorption measurements, it is claimed that the loss in sensitivity caused by unabsorbed radiation passing through the wavelength selector to the detector can be partially offset by using a sufficiently stable source that allows measurements to be made with a high degree of precision. Instrumental requirements for such measurements include a source of continuous radiation with the highest possible stability of radiation output, a highly stable source of atomic vapour, a scanning wavelength selector with a very narrow band-width, and a recorder for measuring detector output.
If there is an excess of oxygen in the flame, the dissociation of oxides will be retarded in accordance with the law of mass action, whereas if the oxygen supply is below that necessary to achieve complete combustion of the fuel gas, the dissociation of oxides will be enhanced. It follows, therefore, that an ideal combination of temperature and environment is important in the process of oxide dissociation. This accounts for the observation that absorption due to aluminium was not detected in an oxy/cyanogen flame/ even though the use of such a flame gives rise to much higher temperatures than can be obtained with an oxy/ acetylene flame.
As indicated previously, flame temperature does not influence absorption characteristics significantly, provided that a sufficiently high temperature is available in a suitable environment to produce atomic vapour of the element being determined. In flames produced from conventional fuels, such as coal-gas, propane or acetylene, where the amount of air or oxygen is just sufficient to provide complete combustion of the fuel, some elements do not produce a significant amount of atomic vapour, and elements such as aluminium, titanium and silicon cannot be determined under these conditions.