Ashrae Handbook - 1997 Fundamentals by Robert Parsons

By Robert Parsons

The industry's so much finished resource of HVAC and refrigeration details for greater than 60 years. each bankruptcy undergoes a rigorous four-year evaluate approach that examines the content material and precludes product or method bias.

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With the pitot-static tube, the ambient (static) pressure is found from pressure taps along the side of the forward-facing portion of the tube. When this portion is not long and slender, static pressure indication will be low and velocity indication high; as a Fig. 17 Differential Pressure Flowmeters result, a tube coefficient less than unity must be used. For parallel conduit flow, wall piezometers (taps) may take the ambient pressure, and the pitot tube indicates the impact (total pressure). The venturi meter, flow nozzle, and orifice meter are flow rate metering devices based on the pressure change associated with relatively sudden changes in conduit section area (Figure 17).

These values indicate the losses, but there is considerable variance. Expansion flows, such as from one conduit size to another or at the exit into a room or reservoir, are not included. 06 Re With sudden expansion, the pressure change settles out in about eight times the diameter change (D2 = D1), while the velocity profile takes at least a 50% greater distance to return to fully developed pipe flow (Lipstein 1962). These disturbance effects are assumed compressed (in the flow direction) into a point, and the losses are treated as locally occurring.

Complicated problems can be solved by graphical or numerical methods such as described by Croft and Lilley (1977), Adams and Rogers (1973), and Patankar (1980). Analogy to Electrical Conduction. Equation (2) is analogous to Ohm’s law for electrical circuits: thermal current (heat flow) in a thermal circuit is directly proportional to the thermal potential (temperature difference) and inversely proportional to the thermal resistance. This electrical-thermal analogy can be used for heat conduction in complex shapes that resist solution by exact analytical means.

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