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The complicated flows within the surroundings and oceans are believed to be effectively modelled via the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics including classical thermodynamics. even if, because of the huge, immense complexity of those equations, meteorologists and oceanographers have developed approximate types of the dominant, large-scale flows that keep an eye on the evolution of climate structures.
Additional resources for Answers to a Selection Problems from Classical Electrodynamics John David Jackson
The small laser beam diameter, its low divergence and the possibility of focusing the beam onto an area of less than 10-s cm 2 allows small samples to be used. Schrader and Meier 187) recorded, for instance, Raman spectra from 5 /~1 of acetyl-a-oxypropionitrile and from 5 #1 CC14. A further advantage is that the illumination geometry is simplified and the scattering angle can be defined more exactly than in conventional, extended arrangements. 4. The controllable polarization o f the exciting laser light enables the polarization of Raman lines and their dependence on scattering angle to be studied 188).
In benzanthrazene, for instance, the S* -* S** absorption band is shifted to the red side of the T ~ T* band 160, 159). Similar studies have been performed by MiJller and Pfli~ger 161) on absorption and fluorescence spectra from excited states in cryptocyanin. The authors used a giant pulse ruby laser to produce the pump pulse and a xenon high-pressure lamp for the analyzing pulse. A fast detection system allows time-resolved analysis of the fluorescence and of absorption changes. With this method, not only the singlet lifetimes, but also the extinction coefficients of the higher singlet-transitions S* ~ S** and the triplet quantum yields can be obtained 161a).
Leite et al. 206) observed n th order (n = 1, 2 . . 9) Raman scattering in CdS under conditions of resonance between the laser frequency and the band gap or the associated exciton states. The scattered light spectrum shows a mixture of fluorescent emission and Raman scattering. Klein and Porto 2o7) associated the multiphonon resonance Raman effect with the fluorescent emission spectrum, and suggested a possible theoretical approach to this effect. Resonance Raman effects in halogen gases have been observed by Holzer et al.