Animal Ecology To-Day by F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)

By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)

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The rain-factor is only slightly unfavourable in January. No extreme drought decimates the adult fly population seriously. The generation factor is very favourable from March to November. Host-sequence is fairly favourable, but is interrupted for 5 months. The main host is not very suitable. No high fly population can be present in September, but damage of late fruit may be expected from late March on. In 1934 conditions are rather different. Whereas host- and generation-factor remain constant, the rain-factor grows more unfavourable in December.

Both species are active during the same season, both are adversely affected by prolonged rain at that period. Choristoneura develops best in dry, sunny weather, while M alacosoma develops better during moderately warm, humid, partly cloudy weather. Where both species coexist, outbreaks of them begin in different years, which in each case are preceded by a few years of specifically favourable weather. Before Choristoneura outbreaks northern and western air is dominating, whereas before Malacosoma outbreaks, it is more influenced by southern and southeastern air.

In our Paramaecium culture the latter factor alone worked. The following scheme may illustrate how destruction, as well as inhibition, induced up to a certain degree and increasing up to a certain point parallel to growing population density, will change the exponential into a logistic growth (Fig. 5, c). The potential increase of any animal, the parents of which die when the young generations appear, is, in principle, similar to that of Protozoa. , we meet the same scheme, always inhibited in nature by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors.

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