By J. B. Walter
New version of this easy-to-read textual content has been up-to-date and revised to hide new info on clinical genetics, immune reaction, and comprises the newest findings in AIDS. Acquaints the reader with primary points of area of expertise parts together with bacteriology, biochemistry, hematology, radiology, and surgical procedure. essentially reproduced photographs, micrographs, and line drawings make clear ideas awarded within the textual content
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They also determine how the body reacts to external events, particularly in respect to the immune response in relation to susceptibility to infection, hypersensitivity, or the development of an autoimmune disease. Presumably, such interac tions and associations explain how particular characteristics are associated with certain diseases, although they are not themselves the obvious cause. , goiter in women and cancer of the lung in men, is an example of this. Mode of Gene Action With the discovery of chromosomes and DNA it was logical that attempts should be made to equate genes with segments of the DNA molecule.
Genes occupying an intermediate position are described later. Sometimes a particular locus on a chromosome can be occupied by one of many possible genes. An example of this type is illustrated below with the explanation of ABO blood grouping. Dominant Genes A simple example of inheritance of a dominant gene is shown by reference to the ABO blood grouping. The allelic genes that can occupy one locus are "A," " B , " or " O " . A homozygous individual who has two A genes (genotype AA) has on his red cells the blood group substance "A" (phenotype group A).
Some of the best-known diseases inherited as recessive traits are galactosemia, albinism,* phenylketonuria, and cystic fibrosis of the pancreas (see Fig. 30-8). Sex-Linked Genes. A gene is said to be sex-linked when it is localized on an "X" or "Y" chromosome. Usually the gene is recessive and is situated on the X chromosome. The most famous disease to be inherited as a sex-linked recessive is hemophilia, which is illustrated in Figure 3^i. Sex-linked dominant traits are recognized but are rare.