By M B. Abbott
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Extra resources for An introduction to the method of characteristics
The small laser beam diameter, its low divergence and the possibility of focusing the beam onto an area of less than 10-s cm 2 allows small samples to be used. Schrader and Meier 187) recorded, for instance, Raman spectra from 5 /~1 of acetyl-a-oxypropionitrile and from 5 #1 CC14. A further advantage is that the illumination geometry is simplified and the scattering angle can be defined more exactly than in conventional, extended arrangements. 4. The controllable polarization o f the exciting laser light enables the polarization of Raman lines and their dependence on scattering angle to be studied 188).
In benzanthrazene, for instance, the S* -* S** absorption band is shifted to the red side of the T ~ T* band 160, 159). Similar studies have been performed by MiJller and Pfli~ger 161) on absorption and fluorescence spectra from excited states in cryptocyanin. The authors used a giant pulse ruby laser to produce the pump pulse and a xenon high-pressure lamp for the analyzing pulse. A fast detection system allows time-resolved analysis of the fluorescence and of absorption changes. With this method, not only the singlet lifetimes, but also the extinction coefficients of the higher singlet-transitions S* ~ S** and the triplet quantum yields can be obtained 161a).
Leite et al. 206) observed n th order (n = 1, 2 . . 9) Raman scattering in CdS under conditions of resonance between the laser frequency and the band gap or the associated exciton states. The scattered light spectrum shows a mixture of fluorescent emission and Raman scattering. Klein and Porto 2o7) associated the multiphonon resonance Raman effect with the fluorescent emission spectrum, and suggested a possible theoretical approach to this effect. Resonance Raman effects in halogen gases have been observed by Holzer et al.