By Army Center of Military History, Richard W. Stewart
American army background presents the USA Army—in specific, its younger officials, NCOs, and cadets—with a complete yet short account of its prior. the guts of army heritage first released this paintings in 1956 as a textbook for senior ROTC classes. in view that then it has undergone a few updates and revisions, however the fundamental reason has remained an identical. help for army background schooling has continually been a significant project of the guts, and this new version of a useful historical past furthers that goal. The heritage of an energetic association has a tendency to extend swiftly because the association grows greater and extra advanced. The interval because the Vietnam battle, at which aspect the newest variation ended, has been an important one for the military, a hectic interval of increasing roles and missions and of basic organizational adjustments. particularly, the explosion of missions and deployments considering that eleven September 2001 has necessitated the production of extra, open-ended chapters within the tale of the U.S. military in motion. this primary quantity covers the Army’s background from its start in 1775 to the eve of global struggle I. through 1917, the U.S. was once already an international strength. the military had despatched huge expeditionary forces past the yankee hemisphere, and initially of the recent century Secretary of warfare Elihu Root had proposed adjustments and reforms that inside a iteration may form the military of the longer term. yet international war—global war—was nonetheless to return. the second one quantity of this new version will soak up that tale and expand it into the twenty-first century and the early years of the conflict on terrorism and comprises an research of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq as much as January 2009.
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Extra resources for AMERICAN MILITARY HISTORY. VOLUME 1. THE UNITED STATES ARMY AND THE FORGING OF A NATION, 1775-1917
One ﬁnal point must be made about the essence of the American Army. We should always remember that it is the Army of the nation and as such responds to the nation’s elected leaders. S. Army have consistently adhered to a principle basic to the American military system, that the Army is an instrument of civilian authority. This principle, which General Washington ﬁrmly established in practice during the Revolutionary War, was embodied in the Constitution of the United States as a fundamental safeguard of republican institu16 INTRODUCTION tions.
This changed during the Cold War with the continuation of the idea of universal obligation for military duty under selective service in time of national emergency. The return to the earlier idea of a small professional regular army, backed up by an organized militia, the National Guard and Army Reserves, has changed the equation again. Yet this relatively small professional force undergoes other risks such as being separated physically, socially, and even culturally from society as a whole with all that entails for a nation that values civilian control of the military.
Because battles were usually fought in open country, cavalry could be employed to full advantage. As for artillery, it was used in both attack and defense, either Eighteenth century ofﬁcers were hardly professionals in the modern sense of the word, usually having entered the service as mere boys through inheritance or purchase of a commission. 23 AMERICAN MILITARY HISTORY Brown Bess Musket, the British Infantryman’s Basic Arm from About 1740 until the 1830s 24 in campaigns of maneuver or in siege warfare.