By Ruth Breu
The major target of this monograph is to supply a framework for the built-in layout of object-oriented courses with algebraic specification ideas. The layout procedure pursued is based essentially at the structuring of structures in response to the suggestion of knowledge varieties. looking on the extent of abstraction, facts kinds are defined in an object-oriented approach via algebraic necessities or by means of machine-executable object-oriented courses. The therapy consists of major elements. First, object-oriented courses must be comparable through a proposal of correctness that types the transition from necessities to software implementations. the writer provides a thought of correctness which depends on the belief of abstraction features. moment, so that it will receive an built-in layout surroundings, a uniform structuring inspiration for item orientated courses and algebraic requisites should be supplied. Inheritance, subtyping and clientship are 3 critical notions of object-oriented structuring. Theauthor makes use of them to increase the kernel of a typed item- orientated programming language. The monograph offers the formal origin for a unified framework of algebraic necessities and object-oriented courses. a huge instruction is the advance of a layout procedure aiding the dependent layout and reuse of software program during this environment.
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Extra resources for Algebraic Specification Techniques in Object Oriented Programming Environments
7 Loop invariant is a special case of PRE. Hoisting Path of an Expression Informally, the safety and desirability of hoisting an expression are deﬁned as follows: An expression can be safely hoisted to a program point u if it is anticipable at u. It should be hoisted to ancestors of u if it is partially available at u. For an expression e, a hoisting path is a maximal sequence of blocks (b1 , b2 , . . , bk ) which is a preﬁx of a potential execution path starting at b1 such that: • bk contains an upwards exposed computation of e, • e is anticipable and partially available at Entry (bi ) and Exit (bi ) of each block bi (other than b1 and bk ), and at Entry (bk ), • e is not available at Exit (b1 ), or can be hoisted to Entry (b1 ), and • no block in the path contains a computation of e, or an assignment to any operand of e.
In some cases deleting such assignments can have a transitive eﬀect because the variables used in the right hand side of such an assignment may cease to be live. Instead of repeating the sequence of liveness analysis and dead code elimination, it is possible to discover such transitive eﬀects through a single data ﬂow analysis before dead code elimination is performed. This analysis is called faint variables analysis and will be presented in Chapter 4. Note that such an analysis cannot be restricted to a single variable at a time because the liveness of variables occurring on † Deletion of code which is unreachable is also called dead code elimination but we will restrict dead code elimination to deletion of assignments to values which have no further use.
Predecessors and successors of a block n are denoted by pred (n) and succ (n) respectively. We assume that the CFG has two distinguished unique nodes: Start which has no predecessor and End which has no successor. If such nodes do not exist, dummy nodes can be added without aﬀecting the program semantics. It is further assumed that every basic block n is reachable from the Start block and that the End block is reachable from n. We use the terms nodes and blocks interchangeably. 2 Discovering Local Data Flow Information The manner in which the eﬀect of a statement is modeled varies from one analysis to another.