By E. Hansler, Gerhard Schmidt
Authors are popular and hugely well-known via the "acoustic echo and noise community."Presents a close description of useful tips on how to keep an eye on echo and noiseDevelops a statistical conception for optimum keep watch over parameters and provides functional estimation and approximation equipment
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Each application exhibits individual constraints that may require methods especially tailored for it. Procedures successful in other applications may not be applicable. ’The authors do hope that the readers forgive them the notation n ( n ) ,which refers to a noise signal at discrete time n. 7 8 ACOUSTIC ECHO AND NOISE CONTROL SYSTEMS Table 2. I Notation Meaning Symbol Signals Background noise Desired signal Output signal of the adaptive filter Error signal Undistorted error signal Sum of all local signals Local speech signal Excitation signal Microphone signal System parameters Impulse response vector of the unknown system Impulse response vector of the adaptive filter Wiener solution System mismatch vector Control parameters Regularization parameter Stepsize Statistical quantities Autocorrelation and cross-correlation Power spectral densities Characteristic features of systems that require echo and noise control are governed by the volume of the enclosure, the required bandwidth, the tolerable delay, and, if the feature is optional, the extra cost.
To give an example, Fig. 14 shows the floor plan of the office used for most of the measurements and experiments described in this book. Its size measures about 18 m2 and its volume is about 50 m3. The floor is covered by carpet. There are 34 . FUNDAMENTALS 3640 mm b 460 rnm 3 1 lrayl can. diameter 280 mm. height 3W mm 460 rnm ga 3 3 3 3 V Door. hegnt 2 M a rnm Fig. 74 Floorplan of an office with 300 ms reverberation time. curtains in front of the windows. The ceiling consists of plaster board.
27) of the logarithmic normalized power spectral density of car noise and histograms calculated from measured noise signals for selected frequencies are shown. As a summary of the discussion of noise in a car one can state that besides stationary components it also contains highly nonstationary elements. Consequently, a noise control method can be efficient only if it can cope with both types of noise signals. 2 ACOUSTIC ECHOES Loudspeaker(s) and microphone(s) in the same enclosure are connected by an acoustical path.