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Some workshop participants were divided over the feasibility of any topdown approach unless it addressed important needs. Many participants, however, were in favour of combining topdown and bottom-up approaches, and noted that the value of existing structures (institutional and legal) should be recognised when identifying the appropriate scale and mechanisms of management. Implementing the Ecosystem Approach CASE STUDY 24 NBSAPs need to incorporate the Ecosystem Approach 32 Parties to the CBD are responsible for implementing the CBD at the national scale, while also considering transboundary issues and wider regional and global priorities.
The lack of importance attached to Principle 3 may reflect the general absence of appropriate (local, national, regional and international) institutional and financial structures and mechanisms. These are needed to value ecosystem services whose benefits extend beyond ecosystem boundaries. Ecosystems typically provide services (such as improvements to water quality that have little or no immediate financial value) or benefits that are received outside of the ecosystem. A number of other factors may also contribute to a neglect of inter-ecosystem relationships: • the tendency for ecosystem managers (as with all people) to have a limited vision, to be interested only in the areas where they work, without being aware of interactions with neighbouring localities; • the traditional focus of conservation efforts on target protected areas even though activities outside these sites may have a significant and damaging impact within them; • the site-specific nature of most projects that seek to catalyse or demonstrate best practice in ecosystem management; and • understanding inter-ecosystem effects requires longterm monitoring of biophysical processes, in some cases over very large areas.
But such knowledge integration can be used to create problem-specific knowledge bases and decision support tools that can help non-specialists visualise and interpret diverse data and can therefore help all stakeholders make appropriate management decisions under the Ecosystem Approach. It is important that those who contribute indigenous knowledge to Ecosystem Approach knowledge bases benefit appropriately. g. biophysical, economic, sociological and political) to be evaluated by a wide range of stakeholders, each with distinct experiences and expertise.