A Tiny Handbook of R by Mike Allerhand (auth.)

By Mike Allerhand (auth.)

This short presents a roadmap for the R language and programming setting with signposts to extra assets and documentation.

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The size, shape, and colour can be set using arguments cex (‘‘character expansion’’), pch (‘‘plot character’’), and col (‘‘colour’’). These parameters take vector values which are recycled to match the number of points plotted in order to control each plotted point individually. The first element in the vector controls the first plotted point, the second controls the second point, and so on. 14 Labels can be suppressed by passing the empty string xlab="", ylab="", and drawn subsequently using title.

For example, the provided data set named sleep consists of two variables in a data frame: [ namesðsleepÞ [ sleep$extra [ meanðsleep$extraÞ # Names of the variables in data frame 'sleep' # Access variable 'extra' in data frame'sleep' # Mean of 'extra' in data frame 'sleep' Many functions return multi-valued results as a single object with named components. Individual parts of the results can be extracted by name. 35 [ attachðsleepÞ # Attach a data frame [ meanðextraÞ # Access variables by name [ detachðsleepÞ # Detach the data frame Functions with and transform provide temporary access to data frame columns by name.

The levels argument specifies an order32 for the labels in terms of the current labels. When the labels are re-ordered the corresponding numeric codes are changed as well to preserve the mapping between labels and codes. The labels argument specifies new values for the labels, which are re-labelled in the order given. When both levels and labels are given the new labels re-label the old in their order specified by levels. 4 Indexing There are functions that return the first and last few parts of a data structure, (head and tail), and there is a rudimentary editor GUI for data frames (fix and edit).

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