A Bibliography of the Modern Chap-Books and their Imitators by Frederick Winthrop Faxon

By Frederick Winthrop Faxon

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8 ULTRA-FINE FIBRES The introduction of ultra-fine fibres was not solely a polyester phenomenon, although polyester was the fibre most involved. 7 denier [59]. 9 denier). These products were developed in Japan from the late 1960s, primarily to improve the hand of fabrics by reducing the bending and torsional stiffness of their constituent fibres. The earliest products to reach the market were non-woven suede-like fabrics such as Toray’s Ecsaine. The technology was expensive, since for most products it involved extrusion of bicomponent fibres, either of the ‘side–side’ type, with subsequent splitting by flexing or other mechanical means, or even more effectively the ‘islands-in-the sea’ type, where the ‘sea’ polymer could be dissolved away leaving the ‘islands’ as extremely fine fibres.

Polyesters and their Applications, Reinhold, New York, and Chapman & Hall, London (1956). 3. Kienle, R. H. and Hovey, A. , J. Am. Chem. , 51, 509 (1929). 4. , Rapt. Ann. Inst. Geol. Hongrie, 26 (1847). 5. Berthelot, M. , 37, 398 (1853). 6. , J. prakt. , 69, 84, 93 (1856). 7. , J. Soc. Chem. , 20, 1075 (1901). THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF POLYESTERS 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 25 General Electric Company (Callahan, M. ), US Patent, 1 108 329 (1914).

Farben (post-war by Farbenfabriken Bayer) [74]. The first products were typically based on hydroxylended polyesters made from adipic acid and a small excess of ethylene glycol, which were then reacted with naphthalenic diisocyanates to lengthen the chains and to cap them with isocyanate groups. These isocyanate-ended polymers were chain-extended by a coupling reaction with water or other reagents, usually difunctional, such as diamines. Cross-linking by formation of biuret groups was then thermally induced to produce the final elastomeric polyester-urethane in the required shape and situation.

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